Dictionary Definition
roulette
Noun
1 a line generated by a point on one figure
rolling around a second figure [syn: line
roulette]
2 a wheel with teeth for making a row of
perforations [syn: toothed
wheel]
3 a gambling game in which players bet on which
compartment of a revolving wheel a small ball will come to rest
in
User Contributed Dictionary
see Roulette
English
Etymology
roulette, roulette, little wheelPronunciation

 Rhymes: ɛt
Noun
 A game of chance, in which a small ball is made to move round rapidly on a circle divided off into numbered red and black spaces, the one on which it stops indicating the result of a variety of wagers permitted by the game.
 A small toothed wheel used by engravers to roll over a plate in order to produce rows of dots.
 A similar wheel used to roughen the surface of a plate, as in making alterations in a mezzotint.
 The locus of a point on a plane curve that rolls without slipping along another fixed plane curve.
 (stampcollecting) any of the small incisions on a sheet of stamps, used as an alternative to perforations.
Translations
game toothed wheel used by engraverstoothed wheel used to roughen the surface of a
plate
in geometry
See also
Extensive Definition
Roulette is a casino and gambling game named after the
French
word meaning "small wheel". In the game, players may choose to
place bets on either a number, a range of numbers, the color red or
black, or whether the number is odd or even. To determine the
winning number and color, a croupier spins a wheel in one
direction, then spins a ball in the opposite direction around a
tilted circular track running around the circumference of the
wheel. The ball eventually loses momentum and falls on to the wheel
and into one of 37 (in European roulette) or 38 (in American
roulette) colored and numbered pockets on the wheel.
History
The first form of roulette was devised in 18th century France. The roulette wheel is believed to be a fusion of the English wheel games RolyPoly, Ace of Hearts, and E.O., the Italian board games of Hoca and Biribi, and "Roulette" from an already existing French board game of that name. The game has been played in its current form since as early as 1796 in Paris. The earliest description of the roulette game in its current form is found in a French novel "La Roulette, ou le Jour" by Jaques Lablee, which describes a roulette wheel in the Palais Royal in Paris in 1796. The description included the house pockets, "There are exactly two slots reserved for the bank, whence it derives its sole mathematical advantage." It then goes on to describe the layout with, "...two betting spaces containing the bank's two numbers, zero and double zero." The book was published in 1801. An even earlier reference to a game of this name was published in regulations for New France (Canada) in 1758, which banned the games of "dice, hoca, faro, and roulette."In 1843, in the German spa casino town of
Homburg, fellow Frenchmen François
and Louis
Blanc introduced the single "0" style roulette wheel in order
to compete against other casinos offering the traditional wheel
with single and double zero house pockets.
In some forms of early American roulette wheels 
as shown in the 1886 Hoyle gambling books, there were numbers 1
through 28, plus a single zero, a double zero, and an American
Eagle. According to Hoyle "the single 0, the double 0, and eagle
are never bars; but when the ball falls into either of them, the
banker sweeps every thing upon the table, except what may happen to
be bet on either one of them, when he pays twentyseven for one,
which is the amount paid for all sums bet upon any single
figure."
In the 1800s, roulette spread all over Europe and
the U.S.A., becoming one of the most famous and most popular casino
games. When the German government abolished gambling in the 1860s,
the Blanc family moved to the last legal remaining casino operation
in Europe at Monte Carlo, where they established a gambling mecca
for the elite of Europe. It was here that the single zero roulette
wheel became the premier game, and over the years was exported
around the world, except in the United States where the double zero
wheel had remained dominant. Some call roulette the "King of Casino
Games", probably because it was associated with the glamour of the
casinos in Monte Carlo.
A legend tells François Blanc supposedly
bargained with the devil to obtain the secrets of roulette. The
legend is based on the fact that the sum of all the numbers on the
roulette wheel (from 1 to 36) is 666, which is the "Number
of the Beast."
In the United States, the French double zero
wheel made its way up the Mississippi from New Orleans, and then
westward. It was here, because of rampant cheating by both
operators and gamblers, the wheel eventually was placed on top of
the table to prevent devices being hidden in the table or wheel,
and the betting layout was simplified. This eventually evolved into
the American style roulette game as different from the traditional
French game. The American game developed in the gambling dens
across the new territories where makeshift games had been set up,
whereas, the French game evolved with style and leisure in Monte
Carlo. However, it is the American style layout with its simplified
betting and fast cash action, using either a single or double zero
wheel, that now dominates in most casinos around the world.
During the first part of the 20th century, the
only casino towns of note were Monte Carlo with the traditional
single zero French wheel, and Las Vegas with the American double
zero wheel. In the 1970s, casinos began to flourish around the
world. By 2008 there were several hundred casinos world wide
offering roulette games. The double zero wheel is found in the
U.S.A., South America, and the Caribbean, while the single zero
wheel is predominant elsewhere.
Roulette Wheel Number Sequence
The pockets of the roulette wheel are numbered
from 1 to 36, alternating between red and black. There is a
green pocket numbered 0.
In American roulette, there is a second green pocket marked 00.
Pocket number order on the roulette wheel adhere to the following
clockwise sequence:
Single zero wheel:
0321519421225173462713361130823105241633120143192218297281235326
Double zero wheel:
028926301172032175223415324361310027102529128193118621331642335142
Betting
Players can place a variety of 'inside' bets (selecting the number of the pocket the ball will land in, or range of pockets based on their position), and 'outside' bets (including bets on various positional groupings of pockets, pocket colors, or whether it is odd or even). The payout odds for each type of bet is based on its probability.The roulette table usually imposes minimum and
maximum bets, and these rules usually apply separately for all of a
player's 'inside' and 'outside' bets for each spin. For 'inside'
bets at roulette tables, some casinos may use separate table chips
of various colors to distinguish players at the table. Players can
continue to place bets until the dealer announces "No more
bets."
Roulette Table Layout
The cloth covering with the betting areas on a
roulette table is known as a "layout." The layout is either single
zero or double zero. The French style layout is a single zero, and
the American style layout is usually a double zero. The American
style roulette table with a wheel at one end is now used in most
casinos. The French style table with a wheel in the centre and a
layout on either side is rarely found outside of Monte Carlo.
0 ↔ 00
118 1st12 1 2 3←
4 5 6 ←
odd 7 8 9 ←
10 11 12 ←
red 2nd12 13 14 15 ←
161718← blk192021← 222324← even3rd12252627←
282930← 1936313233← 343536←
↑↑↑
Types of bets
Inside bets
 Straight Up: a single number bet. The chip is placed entirely on the middle of a number square.
 Split: a bet on two adjoining numbers, either on the vertical or horizontal (as in 1417 or 89). The chip is placed on the line between these numbers.
 Street: a bet on three numbers on a single horizontal line. The chip is placed on the edge of line of a number at the end of the line (either the left or the right, depending on the layout).
 Corner (or square): a bet on four numbers in a square layout (as in 11121415). The chip is placed at the horizontal and vertical intersection of the lines between the numbers.
 Six Line: a bet on two adjoining streets, with the chip placed at the corresponding intersection, as if in between where two street bets would be placed.
 Trio: a bet on the intersecting point between 0, 1 and 2, or 0, 2 and 3.
Outside bets
Outside bets typically have smaller payouts with better odds at winning. 1 to 18: a bet on one of the first low eighteen numbers coming up.
 19 to 36: a bet on one of the last high eighteen numbers coming up.
 Red or Black: a bet on which color the roulette wheel will show.
 Even or Odd: a bet on an even or odd number.
 Dozen Bets: a bet on the first (112), second(1324), or third group(2536) of twelve numbers.
 Column Bets: a bet on all 12 numbers on any of the three vertical lines (such as 14710 on down to 34). The chip is placed on the space below the final number in this string.
Bet odds table (American roulette)
(in addition to the mentioned payout the bet is returned)Note also that 0 and 00 are neither odd nor even
in this game.
House edge
In the early frontier gambling saloons, the house
would set the odds on roulette tables at 27 for 1. This meant that
on a $1 bet you would get $27 and the house would keep your initial
dollar. Today most casino odds are set by law, and they have to be
either 34 to 1 or 35 to 1. This means that the house pays you $34
or $35 and you get to keep your original $1 bet. When placing any
bet, make sure you know if the odds are "for" or "to"
The house average or house edge (also called the
expected
value) is the amount the player loses relative to any bet made,
on average. If a player bets on a single number in the American
game there is a probability of 1/38 that the player wins 35 times
the bet, and a 37/38 chance that the player loses their bet. The
expected value is:
 1*37/38 + 35*1/38 = 0.0526 (5.26% house edge)
For European roulette, a single number wins 1/37
and loses 36/37:
 1*36/37 + 35*1/37 = 0.0270 (2.70% house edge)
The presence of the green squares on the roulette
wheel and on the table are technically the only house edge. Outside
bets will always lose when a single or double zero come up.
However, the house also has an edge on inside bets because the pay
outs are always set at 35 to 1 when you mathematically have a 37 to
1 chance at winning a straight bet on a single number. To
demonstrate the house edge on inside bets, imagine placing straight
$1 wagers on all inside numbers on a roulette table (including 0
and 00) to assure a win. You would only get back 35 times your
original bet having spent $38. The only exception are the five
numbers bet where the house edge is considerably higher (7.89% on
an American wheel), and the 'even money' bets in some European
games where the hous eedge is halved because only half the stake is
lost when a zero comes up.
The house edge should not be confused with the
hold. The hold is the total amount of cash the table changes for
chips, minus the chips taken away from the table. In other words,
the actual "win" amount for the casino. The Casino Control
Commission in Atlantic City releases a monthly report showing the
win/hold amounts for each casino. The average win/hold for double
zero wheels is between 2130%, significantly more than 5.26%/2.70%
of all players money because players are making repeated bets after
winning and losing portions of their total money. This is known in
the casino gaming industry as "churning" and is especially true of
slot machine players who usually end up losing all their
money.
A player with a certain total amount of money may
not win or lose all their money instantly, such that the total of
all bets they make will often be greater than the total of the
money they actually started with. The house edge applies to each
bet made; not the total money, which means the player can end up
losing significantly more than 5.26% of his starting money. For
example it is likely that a player with $100 making $10 bets on red
will be able to bet more than 10 times, because sometimes he wins.
He may end up betting a total of 20 times on red. This means the
expected value is 20*$10*5.26% = $10.52, over 10% of his money is
now in the 'hold' despite the game having a 5.26% house advantage.
A player who continually bets until they run out of money will give
the house 100% hold.
Called (or call) bets
There are a number of series in roulette that have special names attached to them. These are placed by betting a set amount per series (or multiples of that amount). They are based on the way in which certain numbers lie next to each other on the roulette wheel. Not all casinos offer these bets, and some may offer additional bets or variations on these.Voisins du Zero ("Neighbors of Zero")
This is a name for the numbers which lie between 22 and 25 on the wheel including 22 and 25 themselves. The series is 22,18,29,7,28,12,35,3,26,0,32,15,19,4,21,2,25 (on a single zero wheel).9 chips or multiples thereof are bet. 2 chips are
placed on the 0,2,3 trio; 1 on the 4/7 split; 1 on 12/15; 1 on
18/21; 1 on 19/22; 2 on 25/26/28/29 corner; and 1 on 32/35.
Tiers ("The third")
This is the name for the numbers which lie on the opposite side of the wheel between 27 and 33 including 27 and 33 themselves. The series is 27,13,36,11,30,8,23,10,5,24,16,33 (on a single zero wheel).6 chips or multiples thereof are bet. 1 chip is
placed on each of the following splits: 5/8; 10/11; 13/16; 23/24;
27/30; 33/36.
A variant known as "Tier 5,8,10,11" has an
additional chip placed straight up on 5, 8, 10 and 11; and so is a
10piece bet.
This is also called the "Small Series" It
includes the following wagers which are all Splits
5/8, 10/11, 13/16, 23/24, 27/30, 33/36
Orphelins ("Orphans")
These numbers make up the two slices of the wheel outside the Tiers and Voisins. They contain a total of eight numbers, the Orphans comprising 17,34,6 and the Orphelins being 1,20,14,31,9.5 chips or multiples thereof are bet. 1 chip is
placed straightup on 1 and 1 chip on each of the splits: 6/9;
14/17; 17/20 and 31/34.
"xx and the Neighbors"
A number may be backed along with the 2 numbers on either side of it in a 5 piece bet. For example, "0 and the Neighbors" is a 5 piece bet with 1 piece straightup on 3, 26, 0, 32 and 15. Neighbors bets are often put on in combinations, for example "1, 9, 14 and the neighbors" is a 15 piece bet covering 18, 22, 33, 16 with 1 piece; 9, 31, 20, 1 with 2 pieces and 14 with 3 pieces.Any of the above bets may be combined, eg
"Orphelins by 1 and Zero and the Neighbors by 1." The "...and the
Neighbors." is often assumed by the Croupier.
Betting strategies and tactics
Albert Einstein is reputed to have stated, "You cannot beat a roulette table unless you steal money from it."Nevertheless, the numerous evenmoney bets in
roulette have inspired many players over the years to attempt to
beat the game by using one or more variations of a
Martingale betting strategy, wherein the gamer doubles the bet
after every loss, so that the first win would recover all previous
losses, plus win a profit equal to the original bet. As the
referenced article on Martingales points out, this betting strategy
is fundamentally flawed in practice and the nearuniversal
longterm consequence is a large financial loss. Another strategy
is the Fibonacci system, where bets are calculated according to the
Fibonacci
sequence. Regardless of the specific progression, no such
strategy can statistically overcome the casino's advantage.
While not a strategy to win money, Los
Angeles Times editor
Andrés Martinez described an enjoyable roulette betting method
in his book on Las
Vegas entitled "24/7". He called it the "dopey experiment". The
idea is to divide one's roulette session bankroll into 35 units.
This unit is bet on a particular number for 35 consecutive spins.
Thus, if the number hits in that time, the gambler wins back the
original bankroll and can play subsequent spins with house money.
However, there is only a (1  (37/38)^) * 100% = 60.68% probability
of winning within 35 spins (assuming a double zero wheel with 38
pockets).
There is a common misconception that the green
numbers are "house numbers" and that by betting on them one "gains
the house edge." In fact, it is true that the house's advantage
comes from the existence of the green numbers (a game without them
would be statistically fair); however, they are no more or less
likely to come up than any other number.
Various attempts have been made by engineers to overcome the house
edge through predicting the mechanical performance of the wheel,
most notably by Joseph
Jagger at Monte Carlo
in 1873. These schemes work by determining that the ball is more
likely to fall at certain numbers. Claude
Shannon, a mathematician and computer scientist best known for
his contributions to information
theory, built arguably the first wearable computer to do so in
1961.
To try to prevent exploits like this, the casinos
monitor the performance of their wheels, and rebalance and realign
them regularly to try to keep the result of the spins as random as
possible.
More recently Thomas Bass,
in his book The Eudaemonic
Pie 1991 (published as The Newtonian
Casino in Britain), has claimed to be able to predict wheel
performance in real time. The book describes the exploits of a
group of computer hackers, who called themselves the Eudaemons, who in
the late 1970s used computers in their shoes to win at roulette by
predicting where the ball would fall.
At least in the 1930s, some professional gamblers
were able to consistently gain an edge in roulette by seeking out
rigged wheels (not difficult to find at that time) and betting
opposite the largest bets.
In the early 1990s, Gonzalo
GarciaPelayo used a computer to model the tendencies of the
roulette wheels at the Casino de Madrid in Madrid, Spain. Betting
the most likely numbers, along with members of his family, he was
able to win over one million dollars over a period of several
years. A court ruled in his favor when the legality of his strategy
was challenged by the casino.
In 2004 it was reported that a group of two Serbs
and one Hungarian in London had used a
laser scanner hidden inside a mobile phone linked to a computer to
predict the sector of the wheel where the ball was most likely to
drop. They were arrested, but released without charge as there was
no proof they had technically interfered with casino
equipment.
Betting only on red
One conceivable strategy would be to bet on the ball landing in a red space for a certain number of spins, for example, 38.There are 18 red spaces on a roulette table with
38 total spaces. Dividing 18 by 38 yields a probability of landing
on red of 47.37%. This probability can be used in a binomial
distribution and made into an approximate standard normal
distribution.
Doing so indicates that, if one were to spin the
wheel 38 times, there is a 99% probability that the ball would land
on red at least 10 times. There is an 83% probability that in 38
spins, the ball will land on red at least 15 times. Out of 38
spins, there's a 50% chance that 18 will be red.
However, the breakeven point is 19 spins, since
the bet on red is 1:1, and the probability of 19 red spins in 38 is
only 37%. This indicates the difficulty of winning by only betting
on red.
The results occur because, as indicated by the 18
divided by 38 equals 47.37% figure, the ball will land on red less
than half the time. This percentage applied in the binomial and
standard normal distributions creates the vast divide in
probability from 18 red spins to 19 red spins out of 38 spins. It
is very unlikely for anyone to spin much more than 18 red spins out
of 38 spins.
Betting multiple times
This type of bet is a combination of the red bet
and the
martingale system. The difference is that this bet also
includes the odd. This strategy starts off with a bet of 1 on each
the red and the odd (or you can do the black and even). Each bet is
treated separately. When one bet loses, it is doubled. When one bet
wins, it gets set back to 1. The reason that this technique keeps
the player in the game so long is that there is almost a 25% chance
of winning both the red and the odd and there is almost a 50%
chance of breaking even (win one bet and lose the other). Of
course, in order for this method to last, the player would need an
unlimited source of money, and a casino with another one to boot.
In reality, this method backfires when the player can't bet any
longer and loses. The loss that this causes is possibly hundreds of
times bigger than a loss made when starting. Also, in the long run,
because the house still has an edge, the player will lose money
just like with all other
"unbeatable" casino games.
Labouchere System
The Labouchere System is progression betting strategy like the Martingale but does not require the gambler to risk his stake as quickly with dramatic double ups. The Labouchere System involves using a series of numbers in a line to determine the bet amount, following a win or a loss. Typically, the player adds the numbers at the front and end of the line to determine the size of the next bet. When he wins, he crosses out the outside numbers and continues working on the smaller line. If he loses, then he adds his previous bet to the end of the line and continues to work on the longer line. This is a much more flexible progression betting system and there is much room for the player to design his initial line to his own playing preference.Using the dozen bet
There are two versions to this system, single dozen bets and double dozen bets. In the single dozen bet version, the player uses a progressively incrementing stake list starting from the casino table minimum, to the table maximum. The aim here is to use a single dozen bet to win before the stake list ends. Many techniques are employed such as: betting on the same dozen to appear after two consecutive appearances, betting on the dozen that has appeared most in the last 15, 9, or 5 spins, betting on the dozen that, after a long absence of 7 or more spins, appears for the first time. The double dozen bet version uses two dozen bets and half the stake list size of the single dozen bet version.1st and 3rd column strategy
One bet of 2 pieces on the 1st column and one bet of 2 pieces on the 3rd column covers most of the red numbers on the table. One bet of 2 pieces on the black will provide insurance for occurrence of black. This betting system covers nearly all numbers except for the 4 red numbers in the middle column and the zero (and double zero in American Roulette). If the result is a red number in either the 1st or 3rd column, the player only breaks even. If the result is red in the middle column the player loses 6 pieces. If the result is black and in the middle column, the player loses 2 pieces. If the result is a black in the 1st or 3rd column, the player only wins 4 pieces.Mechanical Strategies
There are a number of roulette strategies which take a more mechanical approach to breaking the casino. The most famous is the biased wheel attack. In the biased wheel attack, the player clocks the wheel to find statistical deviations indicating some flaw to the wheel. Given that the wheel is man made it is quite impossible for the roulette wheel to be perfect. The biased wheel attack, seeks to find imperfect wheels and exploit the fact that some wheels will return numbers more often than 1 in 35, which means there is potential to have an edge over the casino. Clocking the wheel involves taking spin results in great numbers to identify any opportunities.BIASED WHEELS: SECTION BETTING
 In 1982, several casinos in England began to lose large sums of money at their roulette tables to teams of gamblers from the USA. Upon investigation by the police, it was discovered they were using a legal system of biased wheelsection betting. As a result of this, the English roulette wheel manufacturer John Huxley designed a roulette wheel to counteract the problem.
Famous bets
 In 1873, the Englishman Joseph Jaggers made the first famous roulette biased wheel attack. Mr. Jaggers with a team of six clerks, clocked all the wheels at the Monte Carlo casino and found one wheel to show significant bias. In their attack exploiting this flaw they won over $325,000, an astronomical sum in 1873.
 In the summer of 1891 at the Monte Carlo casino, a parttime swindler and petty crook from London named Charles Wells, broke the bank at each table he played over a period of several days. Breaking the bank meant he won all the available money in the table bank that day, and a black cloth would be placed over the table until the bank was replenished. In song and life he was celebrated as "The Man That Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo." He later admitted that it was all luck, and he eventually ended up in jail for many years because of his fraudulent schemes.
 In 2004, Ashley Revell of London sold all of his possessions, clothing included, and brought US$135,300 to the Plaza Hotel in Las Vegas and put it all on "Red" at the roulette table in a doubleornothing bet. The ball landed on "Red 7" and Revell walked away with his networth doubled to $270,600.
 In the 1942 film Casablanca, Rick's Café Americain has a trick roulette wheel. The croupier can cause it to land on 22 at will. Rick (Humphrey Bogart) urges a Czech refugee with whose case he becomes sympathetic to put his last three chips on 22 and motions to the croupier to let him win. After the man's number dramatically comes up, Rick tells him to let it all ride on 22 and lets him win again. Although the details are not mentioned in the film (the croupier only notes that they are "a couple of thousand" down), it appears that Rick has given the man 3885 ((3*36*36)3) francs.
 In the music video for "Palace & Main" by Kent, guitarist Harri Mänty goes to Las Vegas and bets the entire video budget on black. He wins, and the profits were donated to charity.
 In the third part of the 1998 film Run, Lola, Run, Lola uses all her money to buy a 100mark chip. (She is actually just short of 100 marks, but gains the sympathy of a casino employee who gives her the chip for what money she has.) She bets her single chip on 20 and wins. She lets her winnings ride on 20 and wins again, making her total winnings 129,600 marks (29,600 more than her smuggler boyfriend owed his boss, Ronnie). The odds of two consecutive wins on the same number on a European roulette wheel are exactly 1368to1 against.
 In the South Park episode "Red Man's Greed", the town, facing destruction at the hands of Native Americans, bets $10,000 to raise money to save the town. They win, but let it ride, and lose all of it.
 Near the beginning of the 1973 film The Sting, Johnny Hooker (Robert Redford) takes his share of the money conned from a numbers runner and loses nearly all of it on a single bet against a rigged roulette wheel.
See also
Notes
References
Roulette Wheel Study. Ron Shelley 1988 revised edition 2001. (Gamblers Bookstore, Las Vegas, NV)External links
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Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words
bingo,
card games, chuck and toss, chuck farthing, chuckaluck,
crackloo, crap game, crap shooting, craps, fantan, hazard, horse racing, keno, lotto, pinball, pitch and toss,
policy, rouge et noir,
shell game, sweepstake, sweepstakes, the numbers,
the numbers game, trenteetquarante